1 Accounting policies
1.1 Basic information
Fortum Corporation (the Company) is a Finnish public limited liability company with its domicile in Espoo, Finland. Fortum’s shares are traded on Nasdaq Helsinki.
The operations of Fortum Corporation and its subsidiaries (together the Fortum Group) focus on the focus on the Nordic and Baltic countries, Russia and Poland. Fortum's activities cover generation, distribution and sale of electricity and heat, and energy-related expert services.
These financial statements were approved by the Board of Directors on 3 February 2015.
1.2 Basis of preparation
The consolidated financial statements of the Fortum Group have been prepared in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and IFRIC Interpretations as adopted by the European Union. The financial statements also comply with Finnish accounting principles and corporate legislation.
The consolidated financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention, except for available for sale financial assets, financial assets and financial liabilities (including derivative instruments) at fair value through profit and loss and items hedged at fair value.
1.2.1 Income Statement presentation:
In the Consolidated income statement Comparable operating profit-key figure is presented to better reflect the Group’s business performance when comparing results for the current period with previous periods.
Items affecting comparability are disclosed as a separate line item. The following items are included in “Items affecting comparability”:
• non-recurring items, which mainly consist of capital gains and losses;
• effects from fair valuations of derivatives hedging future cash flows which do not obtain hedge accounting status according to IAS 39. The major part of Fortum’s cash flow hedges obtain hedge accounting where fair value changes are recorded in equity;
• effects from accounting of Fortum’s part of the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund where the assets can not exceed the related liabilities according to IFRIC5.
Comparable operating profit is used for financial target setting, follow up and allocation of resources in the group’s performance management.
1.2.2 Classification of current and non-current assets and liabilities
An asset or a liability is classified as current when it is expected to be realised in the normal operating cycle or within twelve months after the balance sheet date or it is classified as financial assets or liabilities held at fair value through profit or loss. Liquid funds are classified as current assets.
All other assets and liabilities are classified as non-current assets and liabilities.
1.3 Principles for consolidation
The consolidated financial statements comprise of the parent company, subsidiaries, joint ventures and associated companies.
The Fortum Group was formed in 1998 by using the pooling-of-interests method for consolidating Fortum Power and Heat Oy and Fortum Oil and Gas Oy (the latter demerged to Fortum Oil Oy and Fortum Heat and Gas Oy 1 May 2004). In 2005 Fortum Oil Oy was separated from Fortum by distributing 85% of its shares to Fortum's shareholders and by selling the remaining 15%. This means that the acquisition cost of Fortum Power and Heat Oy and Fortum Heat and Gas Oy has been eliminated against the share capital of the companies. The difference has been entered as a decrease in shareholders’ equity.
Subsidiaries are defined as companies in which Fortum has control. Control exists when Fortum is exposed to, or has rigths to, variable returns from its involvement with the entity and has the ability to affect those returns through its power over the entity.
The acquisition method of accounting is used to account for the acquisition of subsidiaries. The cost of an acquisition is measured as the aggregate of fair value of the assets given and liabilities incurred or assumed at the date of exchange, plus costs directly attributable to the acquisition. Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities assumed in a business combination are measured initially at their fair values at the acquisition date, irrespective of the extent of any minority interest. The excess of the cost of acquisition over the fair value of the Group’s share of the identifiable net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. If the cost of acquisition is less than the fair value of the net assets of the subsidiary acquired, the difference is recognised directly in the income statement.
Subsidiaries are fully consolidated from the date on which control is transferred to the Group and are no longer consolidated from the date that control ceases.
Intercompany transactions, balances and unrealised gains on transactions between Group companies are eliminated. Unrealised losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides evidence of an impairment of the asset transferred. Where necessary, subsidiaries’ accounting policies have been changed to ensure consistency with the policies the Group has adopted.
The Fortum Group subsidiaries are disclosed in Note 42 Subsidiaries by segment on 31 December 2014.
Associated companies are entities over which the Group has significant influence but not control, generally accompanying a shareholding of between 20% and 50% of the voting rights. The Group’s interests in associated companies are accounted for using the equity method of accounting.
1.3.3. Joint ventures
Joint ventures are arrangement in which the Group has joint control. Joint ventures are accounted for using the equity method of accounting.
1.3.4. Non-controlling interests
Non-controlling interests in subsidiaries are identified separately from the equity of the owners of the parent company. The non-controlling interests are initially measured at the non-controlling interests’ proportionate share of the fair value of the acquiree’s identifiable net assets. Subsequent to acquisition, the carrying amount of non-controlling interests is the amount of those interests at initial recognition plus the non-controlling interests’ share of subsequent changes in equity.
1.4 Foreign currency transactions and translation
1.4.1 Functional and presentation currency
Items included in the financial statements of each of the Group’s entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (‘the functional currency’). The consolidated financial statements are presented in euros, which is the Company’s functional and presentation currency.
1.4.2 Transactions and balances
Transactions denominated in foreign currencies are translated using the exchange rate at the date of the transaction. Receivables and liabilities denominated in foreign currencies outstanding on the closing date are translated using the exchange rate quoted on the closing date. Exchange rate differences have been entered in the income statement. Net conversion differences relating to financing are entered under financial income or expenses, except when deferred in equity as qualifying cash flow hedges. Translation differences on available for sale financial assets are included in Other equity components section of the equity.
1.4.3 Group companies
The income statements of subsidiaries, whose measurement and reporting currencies are not euros, are translated into the Group reporting currency using the average exchange rates for the year based on the month-end exchange rates, whereas the balance sheets of such subsidiaries are translated using the exchange rates on the balance sheet date. On consolidation, exchange differences arising from the translation of the net investment in foreign entities, and of borrowings and other currency instruments designated as hedges of such investments, are taken to equity. When a foreign operation is sold, such exchange differences are recognised in the income statement as part of the gain or loss on sale. Goodwill and fair value adjustments arising on the acquisition of a foreign entity are treated as assets and liabilities of the foreign entity and translated at the closing rate.
The balance sheet date rate is based on the exchange rate published by the European Central Bank for the closing date. The average exchange rate is calculated as an average of each month's ending rate from the European Central Bank during the year and the ending rate of the previous year.
|The key exchange rates applied in the Fortum Group accounts|
|Average rate||Balance sheet date rate|
|Currency||2014||2013||31 Dec 2014||31 Dec 2013|
1.4.4 Associates and joint ventures
The Group’s interests in associated companies and jointly ventures are accounted for by the equity method. Associates and joint ventures, whose measurement and reporting currencies are not euro, are translated into the Group reporting currency using the same principles as for subsidiaries, see 1.4.3 Group companies.
1.5 Accounting policies
Fortum describes the accounting principles in conjunction with the relevant note information. The table below lists the significant accounting policies and the note where they are presented as well as the relevant IFRS standard.
|Segment reporting||5. Segment reporting||IFRS 8|
|Revenue recognition||5. Segment reporting and 24. Trade and other receivables||IAS 18|
|Government grants||19. Property, plant and equipment||IAS 20|
|Share‑based payments||12. Employee benefits||IFRS 2|
|Income taxes||29. Deferred income taxes||IAS 12|
| Non‑current assets held for sale and |
|9. Assets held for sale||IFRS 5|
|Joint arrangements|| 20. Participations in associated |
companies and joint ventures
|IFRS 11, IAS 28, IFRS 12|
|Investments in associates|| 20. Participations in associated |
companies and joint ventures
|IAS 28, IFRS 12|
|Other shares and participations||16. Financial assets and liabilities by categories||IAS 32, IAS 36, IAS 39|
|Intangible assets||18. Intangible assets||IAS 38|
|Tangible assets||19. Property, plant and equipment||IAS 16, IAS 36, IAS 40|
|Leasing||36. Leasing||IAS 17|
|Inventories||23. Inventories||IAS 2|
|Earnings per share||15. Earnings and dividend per share||IAS 33|
|Pensions and similar obligations||32. Pension obligations||IAS 19|
|Decommissioning obligation||30. Nuclear related assets and liabilities||IFRIC 5|
|Provisions||31. Other provisions||IAS 37|
|Contingent liabilities||38. Contingent liabilities||IAS 37|
|Financial instruments|| 16. Financial assets and liabilities by categories and |
17. Financial assets and liabilities by fair value hierarchy
|IAS 32, IAS 39, IFRS 7|
|Liquid funds||25. Liquid funds||IAS 7|
|Borrowings||28. Interest‑bearing liabilities||IAS 39|
1.6 New accounting principles
1.6.1 New IFRS standards adopted from 1 Jan 2014
Fortum has adopted the following new or amended standards on 1 January 2014:
IFRS 10 Consolidated financial statements, IFRS 11 Joint arrangements and IFRS 12 Disclosures of interests in other entities.
IFRS 10 Consolidated financial statements
The standard builds on existing principles by identifying the concept of control as the determining factor whether an entity should be included within the consolidated financial statements of the parent company. The standard provides additional guidance to assist in the determination of control where this is difficult to assess.
IFRS 11 Joint arrangements
The standard replaces IAS 31 Interests in joint ventures. Joint control under IFRS 11 is defined as the contractual sharing of control of an arrangement, which exists only when the decisions about the relevant activities require unanimous consent of the parties sharing control.
IFRS 12 Disclosures of interests in other entities
The standard includes disclosure requirements for all forms of interests in other entities, including joint arrangements, associates, special purpose vehicles and other off balance sheet vehicles.
When adopting the new standards Fortum has reassessed its control conclusions for its investees and re-evaluated its involvement in its partially owned investments. The reassessment has lead reclassification of some entities from an associated company to a joint venture. Notwithstanding the reclassification, these investments will continu to be recognised by applying the equity method and there was no impact on the recognised assets, liabilities and comprehensive income of Fortum.
The accounting effects of applying the new standards to Fortum Group financial information relate to AB Fortum Värme samägt med Stockholms Stad (Fortum Värme), that is treated as a joint venture and thus consolidated with equity method from 1 January 2014. Fortum Värme is a district heating company producing heat and power with CHP plants in Stockholm area. Before 2014, the company has been consolidated as a subsidiary with 50% minority interest.
In the restated balance sheet shares of Fortum Värme are included in the Shares in associated companies and joint ventures. Fortum Oyj and its subsidiaries have given loans to Fortum Värme which are presented as shareholders loans in the restated balance sheet. There is a plan to refinance those shareholder loans with external financing by the end of 2015.
Restatement did not have any or only limited effect on Fortum's key ratios such as earnings per share, return on capital employed and return on shareholders' equity. The current financing arrangement effects the restated comparable net debt to EBITDA ratio negatively, increase from 3.4 to 3.9 in 2013, due to Fortum's definition of net debt where interest-bearing receivables are not deducted from net debt. The effect will decrease as Fortum's shareholder loans are replaced with external financing. Comparable net debt to EBITDA ratio would have been 3.4 at the end of 2013, if the interest-bearing receivables from Fortum Värme were deducted from net debt.
When applying IFRS 10 and 11 in 2014, the standards require the comparative information to be restated. Therefore the comparative period information for 2013 presented in the consolidated financial statement for 2014 has been restated. Full set of restated quarterly information for 2013 was presented in the Q1/2014 interim report.
In the following tables Fortum's income statement, balances sheet and certain key figures are presented before and after restatement.
|Impact on income statement for 2013|
|EUR million||Fortum Group with Värme as subsidiary||Fortum group restated Värme as joint venture||Change|
|Materials and services||‑2,533||‑2,270||263|
|Employee benefit costs||‑529||‑460||69|
|Depreciation, amortisation and impairment charges||‑741||‑648||93|
|Comparable operating profit||1,607||1,403||‑204|
|Items affecting comparability||105||105||0|
|Share of profits in associates and joint ventures||105||178||73|
|Finance costs ‑ net||‑318||‑289||29|
|Profit before income taxes||1,499||1,397||‑102|
|Profit for the period||1,279||1,212||‑67|
|Net profit for the period, owners of the parent||1,204||1,204||0|
|Earnings per share, EUR||1.36||1.36||0|
|Impact on balance sheet as of 31 December 2013|
|EUR million||Fortum Group with Värme as subsidiary||Fortum group restated Värme as joint venture||Change|
|Property, plant and equipement||15,201||12,849||‑2,352|
|Shares in associated companies and joint ventures||1,905||2,341||436|
|Long‑term interest‑bearing receivables||1,463||2,597||1,134|
|Other non‑current assets||1,312||1,314||2|
|Total non‑current assets||20,273||19,485||‑788|
|Trade and other receivables 1)||2,518||2,350||‑168|
|Total current assets||4,147||3,863||‑284|
|EQUITY AND LIABILITIES|
|Deferred tax liabilities||1,648||1,338||‑310|
|Other interest‑free liabilities 2)||3,012||2,847||‑165|
|Total liabilities and equity||24,420||23,348||‑1,072|
|1) Include assets held for sale EUR 1,173 million.|
|2) Include liabilities related to assets held for sale EUR 540 million.|
|Impact on key ratios for 2013|
|EUR million||Fortum Group with Värme as subsidiary||Fortum group restated Värme as joint venture||Change|
|Comparable EBITDA, EUR million||2,299||1,976||‑323|
|Earnings per share (basic), EUR||1.36||1.36||0|
|Capital expenditure, EUR million||1,284||1,004||‑280|
|Capital employed, EUR million||19,780||19,183||‑597|
|Interest‑bearing net debt, EUR million||7,849||7,794||‑55|
|Interest‑bearing net debt without Värme financing, EUR million||7,849||6,660||‑1,189|
|Return on capital employed, %||9.2||9.0||‑0.2|
|Return on shareholders' equity, %||12.0||12.0||0.0|
|Comparable net debt/EBITDA||3.4||3.9||0.5|
|Comparable net debt/EBITDA without Värme financing||3.4||3.4||0.0|
Fortum has also applied the annual improvements to IFRSs issued in December 2013 from 1 January 2014 onwards. The improvements primarily remove inconsistencies and clarified wording of standards. Amendments did not have an impact on Fortum’s financial statements.
1.6.2 Adoption of new IFRS standards from 1 Jan 2015 or later
Fortum will apply the following new or amended standards and interpretations starting from 1 January 2016 or later:
IFRIC 21 Levies (effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2014). The interpretation has guidance on when to recognise a liability to pay a levy. Fortum will apply the new standard from 1 January 2015 onwards. The interpretation will not have a material impact on Fortum’s financial statements.
IFRS 9 Financial instruments (effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2018). The standard has new requirements for the classification and measurement of financial assets and liabilities and hedge accounting and it will replace IAS 39 and IFRS 7. Fortum will apply the new standard from beginning of 2018. The Standard is still subject to endorsement by EU.
IFRS 15 Revenue from contracts with Customers (effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2017). The standard focuses on revenue recognition models and will replace IAS 11 and IAS 18. Fortum will apply the new standard from beginning of 2017. The Standard is still subject to endorsement by EU.
Annual Improvements to IFRSs 2012–2014 Cycle issued in September 2014 (effective for annual periods beginning on or after 1 January 2016). The improvements primarily remove inconsistencies and clarify wording of standards. There are separate transitional provisions for each standard. Amendments are not expected to have an impact on Fortum’s financial statements. The improvements are still subject to endorsement by EU.
1.7 Segment reporting
Fortum discloses segment information in a manner consistent with internal reporting to Fortum's Board of Directors and to Fortum Executive Management Team led by the President and CEO. Fortum has segments based on type of business operations, combined with one segment based on geographical area.
The Group's businesses are divided into the following reporting segments: Power and Technology, Heat, Electricity Sales and Solutions, Russia and Distribution.
Revenue comprises the fair value consideration received or receivable at the time of delivery of products and/or upon fulfilment of services. Revenue is shown net of rebates, discounts, value-added tax and selective taxes such as electricity tax. Revenue is recognised as follows:
Sale of electricity, heat, cooling and distribution of electricity
Sale of electricity, heat, cooling and distribution of electricity is recognised at the time of delivery. The sale to industrial and commercial customers and to end-customers is recognised based on the value of the volume supplied, including an estimated value of the volume supplied to customers between the date of their last meter reading and year-end.
Physical energy sales and purchase contracts are accounted for on accrual basis as they are contracted with the Group's expected purchase, sale or usage requirements.
Electricity tax is levied on electricity delivered to retail customers by domestic utilities in Sweden. The tax is calculated on the basis of a fixed tax rate per kWh. The rate varies between different classes of customers. Sale of electricity in the income statement is shown net of electricity tax.
Physical electricity sales and purchases are done through Nord Pool Spot. The sales and purchases are netted on Group level on an hourly basis and posted either as revenue or cost, according to whether Fortum is a net seller or a net buyer during any particular hour.
The prices charged of customers for the sale of distribution of electricity are regulated. The regulatory mechanism differs from country to country. Any over or under income decided by the regulatory body is regarded as regulatory assets or liabilities that do not qualify for balance sheet recognition due to the fact that no contract defining the regulatory aspect has been entered into with a specific customer and thus the receivable is contingent on future delivery. The over or under income is normally credited or charged over a number of years in the future to the customer using the electricity connection at that time. No retroactive credit or charge can be made.
Fees paid by the customer when connected to the electricity, gas, heat or cooling network are recognised as income to the extent that the fee does not cover future commitments. If the connection fee is linked to the contractual agreement with the customer, the income is recognised over the period of the agreement with the customer.
Fees paid by the customer when connected to district heating network in Finland are refundable. These connection fees have not been recognised in the income statement and are included in other liabilities in the balance sheet.
Contract revenue is recognised under the percentage of completion method to determine the appropriate amount to recognise as revenue and expenses in a given period. The stage of completion is measured by reference to the contract costs incurred up to the closing date as a percentage of total estimated costs for each contract. Costs incurred in the year in connection with future activity on a contract are excluded from contract costs in determining the stage of completion. They are presented as inventories, prepayments or other assets, depending on their nature.
The Group presents as an asset the amount due from customers for contract work for all contracts in progress for which costs incurred plus recognised profits (less recognised losses) exceed progress billings. Progress billings not yet paid by customers and retention are included within 'trade and other receivables'. The Group presents as a liability the amount due to customers for contract work for all contracts in progress for which progress billings exceed costs incurred plus recognised profits (less recognised losses).
1.8 Assets held for sale
Non-current assets (or disposal groups) classified as held for sale are valued at the lower of their carrying amount and fair value less costs to sell if their carrying amount will be recovered principally through a sale transaction rather than through continuing use. These classification criteria do not include non-current assets to be abandoned or those that have been temporarily taken out of use. An impairment loss (or subsequent gain) reduces (or increases) the carrying amount of the non-current assets or disposal groups. The assets are not depreciated or amortised. Interest or other expenses related to these assets are recognised as before the classification as held for sale.
Discontinued operations represent a separate major line of business that either has been disposed of or is classified as held for sale. Assets and liabilities attributable to the discontinued operations must be clearly distinguishable from the other consolidated entities in terms of their operations and cash flows. In addition, the reporting entity must not have any significant continuing involvement in the operations classified as a discontinued operation.
1.9 Other income and other expenses
Revenue from activities outside normal operations is reported in other income. This includes recurring items such as rental income and non-recurring items such as insurance compensation.
The Group accounts for emission allowances based on currently valid IFRS standards where purchased emission allowances are accounted for as intangible assets at cost, whereas emission allowances received free of charge are accounted for at nominal value. A provision is recognised to cover the obligation to return emission allowances. To the extent that Group already holds allowances to meet the obligation the provision is measured at the carrying amount of those allowances. Any shortfall of allowances held over the obligation is valued at the current market value of allowances. The cost of the provision is recognised in the income statement within materials and services. Gains/losses from sales of emission rights are reported in other income.
Research and development costs
Research and development costs are recognised as expense as incurred and included in other expenses in the income statement. If development costs will generate future income, they are capitalised as intangible assets and depreciated over the period of the income streams.
1.10 Long-term incentives
Fortum's share bonus system is a performance-based, long-term incentive (LTI) arrangement. A new plan commences annually if the Board of Directors so decides. The potential reward is based on the performance of the Group and its divisions.
In the LTI arrangement each share plan begins with a three-year earning period during which participants may earn share rights if the earnings criteria set by the Board of Directors are fulfilled. The value of the share participation is defined after the three-year earning period when the participants are paid the earned rights in the form of shares. After the earning period, income tax and statutory employment related expenses are deducted from the reward and the net reward is used to acquire Fortum shares in the name of the participant. The maximum value of shares, before taxation, to be delivered to a participant after the earning period cannot exceed the participant’s annual salary.
The earning period is followed by a three-year lock-up period. During the lock-up period the shares may not be sold, transferred, pledged or disposed in any other way. Dividends and other financial returns paid on the shares during the lock-up period are, however, not subject to restrictions. From plan 2013-2018 onwards the lock-up period may be shortened to one year for the Fortum Executive Management Team members on individual basis if the value of the aggregate ownership of Fortum shares corresponds to a minimum of annual base salary. For other participants the lock-up period is changed into one year from plan 2013-2018 onwards. The shares are released from the lock-up after publishing of the Company’s financial results for the last calendar year of the lock-up period, provided that the participant remains employed by the Group.
The share plans under the new LTI arrangement are accounted for as partly cash- and partly equity-settled arrangements. The portion of the earned reward that the participants receive in shares is accounted for as an equity settled transaction, and the portion of the earned reward settled in cash covering the tax and other charges, is accounted for as cash settled transaction. For participants receiving cash only, the total arrangement is accounted for as cash-settled transaction. The reward is recognised as an expense during the vesting period with a corresponding increase in the liabilities and for the transactions settled in shares in the equity. The social charges related to the arrangement payable by the employer are accrued as a liability.
1.11 Earnings and dividend per share
Earnings per share
Basic earnings per share is calculated by dividing the net profit attributable to the owners of the parent company by the weighted average number of ordinary shares in issue during the year, excluding ordinary shares purchased by the Group and held as treasury shares.
Diluted earnings per share is calculated adjusting the weighted average number of ordinary shares outstanding to assume conversion of all dilutive potential ordinary shares. For the warrants and stock options a calculation is done to determine the number of shares that could have been acquired at fair value (determined as the average annual market share price of the Fortum share) based on the monetary value of the subscription rights attached to outstanding stock options.
The number of shares calculated as above is deducted from the number of shares that would have been issued assuming the exercise of the stock options. The incremental shares obtained through the assumed exercise of the options and warrants are added to the weighted average number of shares outstanding.
Options and warrants have a dilutive effect only when the average market price of ordinary shares during the period exceeds the exercise price of the options or warrants. Previously reported earnings per share are not retroactively adjusted to reflect changes in price of ordinary shares.
Dividends proposed by the Board of Directors are not recognised in the financial statements until they have been approved by the Company's shareholders at the Annual General Meeting.
1.12 Financial assets and liabilities by categories
The Group classifies its investments in the following categories: financial assets at fair value through profit or loss, loans and receivables and available for sale financial assets. The classification depends on the purpose for which the investments were acquired. Management determines the classification of its financial assets at initial recognition and re-evaluates this designation at every reporting date.
Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss
A financial asset is classified in this category if acquired principally for the purpose of selling in the short term. Derivatives are also categorised as held for trading unless they are designated as hedges. Assets in this category are classified as current assets if they are either held for trading or are expected to be realised within 12 months of the closing date.
Loans and receivables
Loans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market. They arise when the Group provides money, goods or services directly to a debtor. They are included in non-current assets, except for maturities under 12 months after the closing date. These are classified as current assets.
Available for sale financial assets
Available for sale financial assets are non-derivatives that are either designated in this category or not classified in any of the other categories. They are included in non-current assets unless there is an intention to dispose of the investment within 12 months of the closing date.
Purchases and sales of investments are recognised on the trade-date – the date on which the Group commits to purchase or sell the asset. Investments are initially recognised at fair value plus transaction costs for all financial assets not carried at fair value through profit or loss. Investments are derecognised when the rights to receive cash flows from the investments have expired or have been transferred and the Group has transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership.
Available for sale financial assets and financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are subsequently carried at fair value. Loans are carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method. Gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value of the ’financial assets at fair value through profit or loss’ category are included in the income statement in the period in which they arise. Gains and losses arising from changes in the fair value of securities classified as available for sale are recognised in equity. When securities classified as available for sale are sold or impaired, the accumulated fair value adjustments are included in the income statement.
The fair values of quoted investments are based on current bid prices. If the market for a financial asset is not active (and for unlisted securities), the Group establishes fair value by using valuation techniques. These include the use of recent arm’s length transactions, reference to other instruments that are substantially the same, discounted cash flow analysis, and option pricing models refined to reflect the issuer’s specific circumstances.
The Group assesses at each closing date whether there is objective evidence that a financial asset or a group of financial assets is impaired. If any such evidence exists for available for sale financial assets, the cumulative loss – measured as the difference between the acquisition cost and the current fair value, less any impairment loss on that financial asset previously recognised in profit or loss – is removed from equity and recognised in the income statement.
Accounting for derivative financial instruments and hedging activities
Within the ordinary course of business the Group routinely enters into sale and purchase transactions for commodities. The majority of these transactions take the form of contracts that were entered into and continue to be held for the purpose of receipt or delivery of the commodity in accordance with the Group's expected sale, purchase or usage requirements. Such contracts are not within the scope of IAS 39. All other net-settled commodity contracts are measured at fair value with gains and losses taken to the income statement.
Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value on the date a derivative contract is entered into and are subsequently re-measured at their fair value. The method of recognising the resulting gain or loss depends on whether the derivative is designated as a hedging instrument, and if so, the nature of the item being hedged. The Group designates certain derivatives as either: (1) hedges of highly probable forecast transactions (cash flow hedges); (2) hedges of the fair value of recognised assets or liabilities or a firm commitment (fair value hedge); or (3) hedges of net investments in foreign operations. The Group documents at the inception of the transaction the relationship between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as its risk management objective and strategy for undertaking various hedge transactions. The Group also documents its assessment, both at hedge inception and on an ongoing basis, of whether the derivatives that are used in hedging transactions are highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of hedged items. Derivatives are divided into non-current and current based on maturity. Only for those electricity derivatives, which have cash flows in different years, the fair values are split between non-current and current assets or liabilities.
Cash flow hedge
The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges are recognised in equity. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the income statement. Amounts accumulated in equity are recycled in the income statement in the periods when the hedged item will affect profit or loss (for instance when the forecast sale that is hedged takes place). However, when the forecast transaction that is hedged results in the recognition of a non-financial asset (for example, inventory) or a liability, the gains and losses previously deferred in equity are transferred from equity and included in the initial measurement of the cost of the asset or liability. When a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative gain or loss existing in equity is recognised in the income statement when the forecast transaction is ultimately also recognised in the income statement. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss that was reported in equity is immediately recognised in the income statement.
Fair value hedge
Changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as fair value hedges are recorded in the income statement, together with any changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk.
If the hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, the adjustment to the carrying amount of a hedged item for which the effective interest method is used is amortised to profit or loss for the period to maturity.
Net investment hedging in foreign operations
Hedges of net investments in foreign operations are accounted for similarly to cash flow hedges. Any gain or loss on the hedging instrument relating to the effective portion of the hedge is recognised in equity; the gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the income statement. Gains and losses accumulated in equity are included in the income statement when the foreign operation is disposed of.
Derivatives that do not qualify for hedge accounting
Certain derivative instruments hedging future cash flows do not qualify for hedge accounting. Fair value changes of these financial derivative instruments are recognised in items affecting comparability in the income statement.
1.13 Financial assets and liabilities by fair value hierarchy
Fair value measurements are classified using a fair value hierarchy i.e. Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3 that reflects the significance of the inputs used in making the measurements.
Fair values under Level 1 measurement hierarchy
The fair value of some commodity derivatives traded in active markets (such as publicly traded electricity options, coal and oil forwards) are market quotes at the closing date.
Fair values under Level 2 measurement hierarchy
The fair value of financial instruments including electricity derivatives traded in active markets (such as publicly traded derivatives, and trading and available for sale securities) is based on quoted market prices at the closing date. Known calculation techniques, such as estimated discounted cash flows, are used to determine fair value of interest rate and currency financial instruments. The fair value of interest-rate swaps is calculated as the present value of the estimated future cash flows. The fair value of forward foreign exchange contracts is determined using forward exchange market rates at the closing date. Fair values of options are determined by using option valuation models. The fair value of financial liabilities is estimated by discounting the future contractual cash flows at the current market interest rate that is available to the Group for similar financial instruments. In fair valuation, credit spread has not been adjusted, as quoted market prices of the instruments used are believed to be consistent with the objective of a fair value measurement.
The Group bases the calculation on existing market conditions at each closing date. Financial instruments used in Fortum are standardised products that are either cleared via exchanges or widely traded in the market. Commodity derivatives are generally cleared through exchanges such as for example NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe and financial derivatives done with creditworthy financial institutions with investment grade ratings.
Fair values under Level 3 measurement hierarchy
Fair valuation of electricity derivatives maturing over ten years which are not standard NASDAQ OMX Commodities Europe products are based on prices collected from reliable market participants. Other financial assets and liabilities that are not based on observable market data.
The nominal value less estimated credit adjustments of trade receivables and payables are assumed to approximate their fair values.
1.14 Intangible assets
Intangible assets, except goodwill, are stated at the historical cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses. They are amortised on a straight-line method over their expected useful lives.
Acquired computer software licences are capitalised on the basis of the costs incurred when bringing the software into use. Costs associated with developing or maintaining computer software are recognised as an expense as incurred. Costs that are directly associated with the production of identifiable and unique software products controlled by the Group, and that will generate economic benefits exceeding costs beyond one year, are recognised as intangible assets. Direct costs include the software development employee costs and an appropriate portion of relevant overheads. Computer software costs recognised as assets are amortised over their estimated useful lives (three to five years).
Trademarks and licenses
Trademarks and licences are shown at historical cost less accumulated amortisation and impairment losses, as applicable. Amortisation is calculated using the straight-line method to allocate the cost of trademarks and licences over their estimated useful lives (15-20 years).
Contractual customer relationships
Contractual customer relationships acquired in a business combination are recognised at fair value on acquisition date. The contractual customer relations have a finite useful life and are carried at costs less accumulated amortisation. Amortisation is calculated using the straight-line method over the expected duration of the customer relationship.
Goodwill represents the excess of the cost of an acquisition over the fair value of the Group's share of net identifiable assets of the acquired subsidiary/associate at the date of acquisition. Goodwill on acquisitions of subsidiaries is included in intangible assets. Goodwill on acquisition of associates is included in investments in associates and is tested for impairment as part of the overall balance. Separately recognised goodwill is tested annually for impairment and carried at cost less accumulated impairment losses. Impairment losses on goodwill are not reversed. Gains and losses on disposal of an entity include the carrying amount of goodwill relating to the entity sold.
1.15 Property, plant and equipment
Property, plant and equipment comprise mainly power and heat producing buildings and machinery, transmission lines, tunnels, waterfall rights and district heating network. Property, plant and equipment are stated at historical cost less accumulated depreciation and accumulated impairment losses as applicable in the consolidated balance sheet. Historical cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of an item and borrowing costs capitalised in accordance with the Group’s accounting policy. Cost may also include transfers from equity of any gains or losses on qualifying cash flow hedges of foreign currency purchases of property, plant and equipment. Acquired assets on the acquisition of a new subsidiary are stated at their fair values at the date of acquisition.
Subsequent costs are included in the asset’s carrying amount or recognised as a separate asset, as appropriate, only when it is probable that future economic benefits associated with the item will flow to the Group and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. All other repairs and maintenance are charged to the income statement during the financial period in which they are incurred.
Additionally the cost of an item of property, plant and equipment includes the estimated cost of its dismantlement, removal or restoration.
See Note 31 Other provisions for information about asset retirement obligations.
Land, water areas, waterfall rights and tunnels are not depreciated since they have indefinite useful lives. Depreciation on other assets is calculated using the straight-line method to allocate their cost to their residual values over their estimated useful lives, as follows:
- Hydro power plant buildings, structures and machinery 40-50 years
- Thermal power plant buildings, structures and machinery 25 years
- Nuclear power plant buildings, structures and machinery 25 years
- CHP power plant buildings, structures and machinery 15-25 years
- Substation buildings, structures and machinery 30-40 years
- Distribution network 15-40 years
- District heating network 30-40 years
- Other buildings and structures 20-40 years
- Other tangible assets 20-40 years
- Other machinery and equipment 3-20 years
- Other non-current investments 5-10 years
The assets’ residual values and useful lives are reviewed, and adjusted if appropriate, at each closing date. An asset’s carrying amount is written down immediately to its recoverable amount if the asset’s carrying amount is greater than its estimated recoverable amount.
Impairment of non-financial assets
The individual assets’ carrying values are reviewed at each closing date to determine whether there is any indication of impairment. An asset's carrying amount is written down immediately to its recoverable amount if it is greater than the estimated recoverable amount.
When considering the need for impairment the Group assesses if events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. This assessment is documented once a year in connection with the Business Plan process. Indications for impairment are analysed separately by each division as they are different for each business and include risks such as changes in electricity and fuel prices, regulatory/political changes relating to energy taxes and price regulations etc. Impairment testing needs to be performed if any of the impairment indications exists. Assets that have an indefinite useful life and goodwill, are not subject to amortisation and are tested annually for impairment.
An impairment loss is recognised in the income statement for the amount by which the assets' carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset’s fair value less costs to sell and value in use. For the purpose of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash flows (cash-generating units). Goodwill is allocated to cash-generating units for the purpose of impairment testing. The allocation is made to those cash-generating units or groups of cash-generating units that are expected to benefit from the business combination in which the goodwill arose.
Value in use is determined by discounting the future cash flows expected to be derived from an asset or cash-generating unit. Cash flow projections are based on the most recent Business Plan that has been approved by management and the Board of Directors. Cash flows arising from future investments such as new plants are excluded unless projects have been started. The cash outflow needed to complete the started projects is included.
The period covered by cash flows is related to the useful lives of the assets reviewed for impairment. According to IFRS, projections used should cover a maximum period of five years, but longer period can be justifiable in certain circumstances. The Group uses a longer projection period than normally allowed by IFRS, which reflects the long useful lives of power plants and other major assets. Cash flow projections beyond the period covered by the most recent business plan are estimated by extrapolating the projections using growth rates estimated by management for subsequent years.
Non-financial assets other than goodwill that suffered an impairment charge are reviewed for possible reversal of the impairment at each reporting date.
Grants from the government are recognised at their fair value where there is a reasonable assurance that the grant will be received and the Group will comply with all attached conditions. Government grants relating to costs are deferred and recognised in the income statement over the period necessary to match them with the costs that they are intended to compensate. Government grants relating to the purchase of property, plant and equipment are deducted from the acquisition cost of the asset and are recognised as income by reducing the depreciation charge of the asset they relate to.
Borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of qualifying assets are added to the cost of those assets, until such time as the assets are substantially ready for their intended use or sale. Qualifying assets are assets that necessarily take a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale.
All other borrowing costs are recognised in profit or loss in the period in which they are incurred.
Fortum owns, through its subsidiary Fortum Power and Heat Oy, the coal condensing power plant Meri-Pori in Finland. Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) has the contractual right to participate in the plant with 45.45%. The capacity and production is divided between Fortum and TVO. Each owner can decide when and how much capacity to use for production. Both Fortum and TVO purchase fuel and emission rights independently. Since Fortum and TVO are sharing control of the power plant, Meri-Pori is accounted for as a joint operation. Fortum is accounting for its part of the investment, i.e. 54.55%. Fortum is also entitled to part of the electricity TVO produces in Meri-Pori through its shareholding of 26.58% of TVO C-series shares.
For further information regarding Fortum’s shareholding in TVO, see Note 20 Participations in associated companies and joint ventures.
1.16 Participations in associated companies and joint ventures
The Group’s interests in associated companies and jointly controlled entities are accounted for using the equity method of accounting. Assets acquired and liabilities assumed in the investment in associates or joint ventures are measured initially at their fair values at the acquisition date. The excess of the cost of acquisition over the fair value of the Group’s share of the identifiable net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. If the cost of acquisition is less than the fair value of the net assets of the associate or joint venture acquired, the difference is recognised directly in the income statement.
The Group’s share of its associates or joint ventures post-acquisition profits or losses after tax and the expenses related to the adjustments to the fair values of the assets and liabilities assumed are recognised in the income statement. The cumulative post-acquisition movements are adjusted against the carrying amount of the investment. The Group's share of post-acquisition adjustments to associates or joint ventures equity that has not been recognised in the associates or joint ventures income statement, is recognised directly in Group's shareholder's equity and against the carrying amount of the investment.
When the Group’s share of losses in an associate or a joint venture equals or exceeds its interest in the associate or joint venture, including any other unsecured receivables, the Group does not recognise further losses, unless it has incurred obligations or made payments on behalf of the associate or joint venture.
Unrealised gains on transactions between the Group and its associates or joint ventures are eliminated to the extent of the Group’s interest in the associate or joint venture. Unrealised losses are also eliminated unless the transaction provides evidence of an impairment of the asset transferred. Accounting policies of associates or joint ventures have been changed where necessary to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the Group.
If more recent information is not available, the share of the profit of certain associated or joint venture companies is included in the consolidated accounts based on the latest available information.
Inventories mainly consist of fuels consumed in the production process or in the rendering of services. Inventories are stated at the lower of cost and net realisable value being the estimated selling price for the end product, less applicable variable selling expenses and other production costs. Cost is determined using the first-in, first-out (FIFO) method.
Inventories which are acquired primarily for the purpose of trading are stated at fair value less selling expenses.
1.18 Trade and other receivables
Trade receivables are recorded at their fair value. A provision for impairment of trade receivables is established when there is evidence that the Group will not be able to collect all amounts due according to the original terms of the receivable. Significant financial difficulties of the debtor, probability that the debtor will enter into bankruptcy or financial reorganisation, and default or delinquency in payments are considered as indicators that the receivable is impaired. The amount of the impairment charge is measured as the difference between the asset's carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows.
Trade receivables include revenue based on an estimate of electricity, heat, cooling and distribution of electricity already delivered but not yet measured and not yet invoiced.
1.19 Liquid funds
Cash and cash equivalents in Liquid funds include cash in hand, deposits held at call with banks and other short-term, highly liquid investments with maturities of three months or less. Bank overdrafts are shown within borrowings in current liabilities in the balance sheet.
1.20 Share capital
Where any group company purchases the Company's shares (treasury shares), the consideration paid, including any directly attributable incremental costs (net of income taxes), is deducted from equity attributable to the Company's equity holders until cancelled or reissued. When such shares are subsequently sold or reissued, any consideration received is included in equity.
1.21 Interest-bearing liabilities
Borrowings are recognised initially at fair value less transaction costs incurred. In subsequent periods, they are stated at amortised cost; any difference between proceeds (net of transaction costs) and the redemption value is recognised as interest cost over the period of the borrowing using the effective interest method. Borrowings or portion of borrowings being hedged with a fair value hedge are recognised at fair value.
1.22 Deferred income taxes
The tax currently payable is based on taxable profit for the year. Taxable profit differs from profit as reported in the consolidated income statement because of items of income or expense that are taxable or deductible in other years and items that are never taxable or deductible. The Group’s liability for current tax is calculated using tax rates that have been enacted or substantively enacted by the end of the reporting period.
Deferred tax is provided in full, using the liability method, on temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the consolidated financial statements. However, if the deferred tax arises from initial recognition of an asset or liability in a transaction other than a business combination that at the time of the transaction affects neither accounting nor taxable profit or loss, it is not accounted for. Deferred tax is determined using tax rates (and laws) that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the closing date and are expected to apply when the related deferred tax asset is realised or the deferred tax liability is settled.
Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilised. Deferred tax assets are set off against deferred tax liabilities if they relate to income taxes levied by the same taxation authority.
Deferred tax is provided on temporary differences arising from investments in subsidiaries, associates and joint ventures, except where the timing of the reversal of the temporary difference is controlled by the Group, and it is probable that the temporary difference will not reverse in the foreseeable future.
1.23 Nuclear related assets and liabilities
Fortum owns Loviisa nuclear power plant in Finland. Fortum's nuclear related provisions and the related part of the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund are both presented separately in the balance sheet. Fortum's share in the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund is accounted for according to IFRIC 5, Rights to interests arising from decommissioning, restoration and environmental rehabilitation funds which states that the fund assets are measured at the lower of fair value or the value of the related liabilities since Fortum does not have control or joint control over the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund. The Nuclear Waste Management Fund is managed by governmental authorities. The related provisions are the provision for decommissioning and the provision for disposal of spent fuel.
The fair values of the provisions are calculated according to IAS 37 by discounting the separate future cash flows, which are based on estimated future costs and actions already taken. The initial net present value of the provision for decommissioning (at the time of commissioning the nuclear power plant) has been included in the investment cost and is depreciated over the estimated operating time of the nuclear power plant. Changes in the technical plans etc., which have an impact on the future cash flow of the estimated costs for decommissioning, are accounted for by discounting the additional costs to the current point in time. The increased asset retirement cost due to the increased provision is added to property, plant and equipment and depreciated over the remaining estimated operating time of the nuclear power plant.
The provision for spent fuel covers the future disposal costs for fuel used until the end of the accounting period. Costs for disposal of spent fuel are expensed during the operating time based on fuel usage. The impact of the possible changes in the estimated future cash flow for related costs is recognised immediately in the income statement based on the accumulated amount of fuel used until the end of the accounting period. The related interest costs due to unwinding of the provision, for the period during which the spent fuel provision has been accumulated and present point in time, are also recognised immediately in the income statement.
The timing factor is taken into account by recognising the interest expense related to discounting the nuclear provisions. The interest on the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund assets is presented as financial income.
Fortum's actual share of the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund, related to Loviisa nuclear power plant, is higher than the carrying value of the Fund in the balance sheet. The legal nuclear liability should, according to the Finnish Nuclear Energy Act, be fully covered by payments and guarantees to the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund. The legal liability is not discounted while the provisions are, and since the future cash flow is spread over 100 years, the difference between the legal liability and the provisions are material.
The annual fee to the Fund is based on changes in the legal liability, the interest income generated in the State Nuclear Waste Management Fund and incurred costs of taken actions.
Fortum also has minority shareholdings in the associated nuclear power production companies Teollisuuden Voima Oyj (TVO) in Finland and directly and indirectly in OKG AB and Forsmarks Kraftgrupp AB in Sweden. The Group’s interests in associated companies are accounted for by the equity method. Accounting policies of the associates regarding nuclear assets and liabilities have been changed where necessary to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the Group.
1.24 Other provisions
Provisions for environmental restorations, asset retirement obligations, restructuring costs and legal claims are recognised when the Group has a present legal or constructive obligation as a result of past events to a third party, it is probable that an outflow of resources will be required to settle the obligation and the amount can be reliably estimated.
Provisions are measured at the present value of the expenditures expected to be required to settle the obligation using a pre-tax rate that reflects current market assessments of the time value of money and the risks specific to the obligation. The increase in the provision due to the passage of time is recognised as interest expense.
Environmental provisions are recognised, based on current interpretation of environmental laws and regulations, when it is probable that a present obligation has arisen and the amount of such liability can be reliably estimated. Environmental expenditures resulting from the remediation of an existing condition caused by past operations, and which do contribute to current or future revenues, are expensed as incurred.
Asset retirement obligations
Asset retirement obligation is recognised either when there is a contractual obligation towards a third party or a legal obligation and the obligation amount can be estimated reliably. Obligating event is e.g. when a plant is built on a leased land with an obligation to dismantle and remove the asset in the future or when a legal obligation towards Fortum changes. The asset retirement obligation is recognised as part of the cost of an item of property and plant when the asset is put in service or when contamination occurs. The costs will be depreciated over the remainder of the asset's useful life.
A restructuring provision is recognised when the Group has developed a detailed formal plan for the restructuring and has raised a valid expectation in those affected that it will carry out the restructuring by starting to implement the plan or announcing its main features to those affected by it. The measurement of a restructuring provision includes only the direct expenditures arising from the restructuring, which are those amounts that are both necessarily entailed by the restructuring and not associated with the ongoing activities of the entity. Restructuring provisions comprise mainly of employee termination payments and lease termination costs.
1.25 Pension obligations
The Group companies have various pension schemes in accordance with the local conditions and practises in the countries in which they operate. The schemes are generally funded through payments to insurance companies or Group’s pension fund as determined by periodic actuarial calculations. The Group has both defined benefit and defined contribution plans.
The Group's contributions to defined contribution plans are charged to the income statement in the period to which the contributions relate.
For defined benefit plans, pension costs are assessed using the projected unit credit method. The cost of providing pensions is charged to the income statement as to spread the service cost over the service lives of employees. The net interest is presented in financial items and the rest of the income statement effect as pension cost.
The defined benefit obligation is calculated annually on the balance sheet date and is measured as the present value of the estimated future cash flows using interest rates of high-quality corporate bonds that have terms to maturity approximating to the terms of the related pension liability. In countries where there is no deep market in such bonds, market yields on government bonds are used instead. The plan assets for pensions are valued at market value. The liability recognised in the balance sheet is the defined benefit obligation at the closing date less the fair value of plan assets. Prepaid contributions are recognised as an asset to the extent that a cash refund or a reduction in the future payments is available.
When the benefits of a plan are changed or when a plan is curtailed, the resulting change in benefit that relates to past service or the gain or loss related to a curtailment is recognised immediately in profit or loss. Gains or losses on settlements of defined benefits plans are recognised when the settlement occurs.
Leases of property, plant and equipment, where the Group has substantially all the risks and rewards of ownership, are classified as finance leases. Finance leases are capitalised at the commencement of the lease term at the lower of the fair value of the leased property and the present value of the minimum lease payments determined at the inception of the lease. Each lease payment is allocated between the reduction of the outstanding liability and the finance charges. The corresponding rental obligations, net of finance charges, are included in the long-term or short-term interest-bearing liabilities according to their maturities. The interest element of the finance cost is charged to the income statement over the lease term so as to produce a constant periodic rate of interest on the remaining balance of the liability for each period. The property, plant and equipment acquired under finance leases are depreciated over the shorter of the useful life of the asset or the lease term.
Leases of property, plant and equipment, where the Group does not have substantially all of the risks and rewards of ownership are classified as operating leases. Payments made under operating leases are recognised in the income statement as costs on a straight-line basis over the lease term.
Payments received under operating leases where the Group leases out fixed assets are recognised as other income in the income statement.
1.27 Contingent liabilities
A contingent liability is disclosed when there is a possible obligation that arises from past events and whose existence is only confirmed by one or more doubtful future events or when there is an obligation that is not recognised as a liability or provision because it is not probable that an outflow of resources will be required or the amount of the obligation cannot be reliably estimated.