Annual Report 2014 | Suomeksi |

Effluents and waste

EN22 Total water discharge by quality and destination

Energy production’s impacts on water systems are caused by the thermal load of cooling water discharges and the impurities in wastewater effluents. All wastewater is conducted directly to municipal sewage treatment plants or cleaned on-site before being discharged into water systems.

In 2014, we used a total of 2,094 million (2013: 2,231) cubic meters of cooling water, which was discharged back into water systems. The thermal load on the water systems was

18 (2013: 19) TWh. The biggest single user of cooling water was the Loviisa nuclear power plant, which withdrew from and discharged to the sea 1,377 million cubic meters of cooling water. The Loviisa nuclear power plant’s thermal load on the sea was 16 TWh. Temperature measurements indicate that the cooling water has increased the temperature of surface water by 1–2 ºC within a 1–2 kilometre distance from the discharge point.

Our plants generated a total of 33 (2013: 34) million m3 of wastewater, of which 95% was released into the environment after being treated.

The reported waste water volumes are based on flow measurements at our power plants and heat boilers.

Waste water emissions by recipient in 2012‑2014
million m3 2014 2013 20121)
Sea 9.0 9.6 9.1
Fresh water system 22.4 22.3 22.9
Municipal sewage 1.2 1.6 2.7
Other recipient 0.5 0.1 0.3
1) Includes joint venture AB Fortum Värme samägt med Stockholms Stad

During the year, about1.8 tonnes of oil was released into water systems with the wastewater discharges from our power plants. In addition, about 1.5 tonnes of oil was released into the environment in three separate oil spill incidents.

Oil emission calculations are based on analyses of periodically taken water samples and flow measurements.

In recent years there have been frequent violations of wastewater permits at Russian power plants. They have been examined in more detail in indicator EN29.

EN23 Total weight of waste by type and disposal method

Our thermal power plants use millions of tonnes of solid fuels annually. Ash from incineration and gypsum from flue gas desulphurisation account for the clearly largest share, over 90% on average, of the by-products and wastes from our 

energy production. All energy production generates normal industrial waste, which is either recycled or disposed of at landfill sites. Some of the waste is classified as hazardous and is transported for treatment at licensed hazardous waste facilities. The volume of radioactive wastes generated in nuclear power production is small, but special solutions are needed in their treatment and disposal.

The total volume of by-products and wastes was 697,000 (2013: 742,000) tonnes.

Ash and gypsum

About 659,000 (2013: 677,000) tonnes of ash, 9,800 (2013: 29,000) tonnes of gypsum and 9,800 (2013: 15,800) tonnes of other desulphurisation product were generated. About 56% of the ash was generated at Russian plants, 16% in Finland and 16% in Poland. Reduced volume of ash and gypsum was primarily caused by decreased condensing power production in Finland.

In Europe, ash and gypsum from desulphurisation are utilised and recycled as efficiently as possible. In Russia, ash is stored in ponds because there are no other uses for it, with the exception of building embankments for ash ponds. In addition, the wet ash handling makes utilisation more difficult. The ash recycling rate at Fortum was 34% (2013: 38%) and the gypsum recycling rate 100% (2013: 99%).

Gypsum was utilised as a raw material in the gypsum board industry. Fly ash was used in the construction material industry, in road construction and in backfilling mines. In Finland, the Joensuu power plant received an environmental permit for the construction of a noise barrier to be built from the plant’s ashes around the power plant site. The CE-marking for the bottom ash of our power plants was granted in 2014.

Any remaining by-products that cannot be utilised are disposed of in landfills or put into intermediate storage. About 434,000 (2013: 420,000) tonnes of ash and 9,800 (2013: 15,800) tonnes of desulphurisation product from

Suomenoja power plant were disposed of in landfill sites. The desulphurisation product from the Suomenoja power plant has no potential for utilisation.

The reported volumes of ash and gypsum from our European power plants are based on weighing of the truckloads. At our Russian power plants ash volumes are calculated based on the ash contents of coal.

Ash and gypsum handling in 2012‑2014
thousand tonnes 2014 2013 20121)
Ash utilisation 226 257 369
Ash disposal 434 420 351
Gypsum utilisation 9.8 28.8 8.1
Gypsum disposal 0 0.3 1.0
1) Includes joint venture AB Fortum Värme samägt med Stockholms Stad

Nuclear waste

We used 22.7 (2013: 20.1) tonnes of uranium fuel at the Loviisa nuclear power plant and produced a corresponding amount of high-level radioactive nuclear waste. 2.88 (2013: 2.50) g/MWh of spent fuel was generated per produced energy unit.

Until 1996, the spent fuel was returned to the fuel supplier in Russia. Since 1997, all spent fuel has been stored at the power plant site. At the end of 2014, the plant units’ fuel basins and the separate spent fuel storage facility had a total of 633 tonnes of spent nuclear fuel. The spent fuel will eventually be moved to the final repository, which Posiva Oy is planning in the Olkiluoto bedrock.

In addition to spent fuel, about 141 (2013: 160) m3 of low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste was produced. Intermediate-level waste includes liquid evaporation waste

and spent ion exchange resins. For now, they are stored in storage tanks in the plant area. At the end of 2014, the storage tanks had 658 m3 of evaporation waste and 566 m3 of ion exchange resins. The total radioactivity of the liquid waste at the end of 2014 was 15.8 TBq. Before final disposal, the liquid waste is solidified in concrete. The solidification plant is in the finishing phase and will be commissioned during 2016 at the latest.

Dry, low-level radioactive waste consists mainly of slightly contaminated materials generated in conjunction with maintenance and repair work. After the level of radioactivity has been measured, some of the low-level radioactive waste can be classified as non-radioactive waste and released from control to be recycled or placed in ordinary landfills. 121 tonnes of metals, among other things, were released from control for recycling and 24 tonnes of mixed waste for transport to a landfill in 2014.

Low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste is disposed of in the underground repository at the power plant site in Loviisa. During 2014, about 40 (2013: 38) m3 of low-level maintenance waste was disposed of in the repository. By the end of 2014, a total of 1,927 m3 of low-level waste had been placed in the repository. The total radioactivity of the low-level waste placed in the repository at the end of 2014 was 448 GBq.

Other waste

Our operations generated a total of 27,700 (2013: 33,800) tonnes of waste (excluding the gypsum and ash deposited in landfills); of this amount, 2,500 (2013: 5,000) tonnes was hazardous waste. The oils containing PCB were transported to hazardous waste treatment plants as part of hazardous waste.

The reported volumes of other waste are based on the information provided by the waste companies.

Waste handling in 2012‑2014
thousand tonnes 2014 2013 20121)
Recycling/recovery 7.7 8.8 12.7
Landfill 17.5 21.3 18.8
Hazardous waste recovery 0.1 1.3 4.7
Hazardous waste disposal 2.4 4.0 5.8
Total 27.7 35.3 42.0
1) Includes joint venture AB Fortum Värme samägt med Stockholms Stad

EN24 Total number and volume of significant spills

In 2014, there were three oil spills of more than 100 litres (2013: 9) into the environment. The total estimated volume of the oil spills was about 1,500 litres. The oil spills did not cause major environmental impacts.

Major spills in 2014
Location Description Quantity (l)
Joensuun power plant, Finland Fuel oil to soil 1,000
Skedvi hydropower plant, Sweden Hydraulic oil to river 200
Edeforsen hydropower plant, Sweden Transformer oil to soil 300
Total 1,500

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